5 ways to light a fire – From friction to flame

5 ways to light a fire – From friction to flame

Fire has played a central role in human evolution, profoundly influencing the trajectory of our development. The mastery of fire by early humans, believed to be controlled first by Homo erectus around one to 1.5 million years ago, marked a significant turning point. It enabled our ancestors to cook food, deter predators, and survive colder climates, which in turn allowed for more complex social structures and improved communication skills. This control over fire not only facilitated dietary changes but also had a lasting impact on human physiology and culture, fostering advancements in technology and social organisation (Wrangham, 2009).

A camp fire at the side of a beautiful lake at sunset.

The ability to control fire is what initially set us apart from other mammals. We found ways to start, maintain and transport fire. This gave us greater flexibility in where we could live, what we could eat and how we could protect ourselves from wild animals. Perhaps one of the most under-rated aspects of fire in a survival situation is its ability to lift our spirits.

In a survival situation our priorities, in order of importance, are:

  1. Make a decision within the first three seconds. STOP (Stop, think, observe and plan).
  2. Secure air – Removal of ourselves from threat, first aid. We can’t live without air for longer than about three minutes.
  3. Shelter – Shelter from extreme environments is essential to prevent hypothermia in extreme cold to heat exhaustion in extreme heat. Hypothermia can kill within hours so we need to find or create shelter within the first three hours.
  4. Water – It is unlikely that we will survive for longer than three days without water 
  5. Food – Most people can survive for up to three weeks without food. Once personal safety, air, shelter and water have been secured our next priority is to find food.

Using fire in a survival situation initially falls under shelter. We can use fire to create warmth, boil water to make it safe to drink, cook food and to signal our position for rescue.

The key to a successful fire is preparation. The better the preparation the higher the chance of success. Not only do we need to be able to start a fire with an ignition source, we also need to be able to sustain the flame for as long as it is required, that could be minutes, hours or days. We need tinder (material that readily accepts a spark), kindling (thin, dry sticks that prolong the initial flame) and sustaining wood (thicker sticks that burn for longer). These should be collected and processed (prepared) before attempting to light a fire.

Here are five ways to start a fire

1. Open Flame: Lighters/matches

Using an open flame, such as from a lighter, is perhaps the most straightforward method to start a fire. Lighters are portable, reliable, and easy to use, making them a staple in modern survival kits. They work well in most weather conditions and can quickly ignite a variety of tinders, offering immediate fire access with minimal effort (McLean, 2000).

2. Spark: Ferro rod/flint and steel

A ferrocerium rod, often referred to as a “ferro rod,” produces sparks when scraped with a striker or the back of a knife blade. These sparks are extremely hot and capable of igniting a wide range of tinders. This method is highly reliable, works in all weather conditions, and is an essential component of many emergency and outdoor survival kits (Thompson, 2004). An alternative to a ferro rod is a more traditional flint and steel striker. A flint and steel is harder to master than a ferro rod but once mastered is a viable alternative.

3. Solar: Using a Lens

Solar ignition utilises the sun’s rays to start a fire, requiring a magnifying lens or any convex lens to focus sunlight onto a point on your tinder. The intense focal point increases the tinder’s temperature until it ignites. This method is effective in sunny conditions, offering a viable option when traditional methods are not available or desired (Gibson, 2011). A piece of glass, especially the concave bottom of a bottle, often found lying around, can be used for solar ignition.

4. Friction: Fire bow/ Bow drill

The fire bow or bow drill is a classic friction-based method to start a fire. It involves using a bow to rapidly spin a spindle against a fire-board, generating enough heat through friction to create an ember. This method is more advanced than the basic hand drill because the bow allows for continuous motion, reducing physical exertion and increasing heat generation efficiency. Wood selection is crucial, with softer woods like cedar or spruce often preferred for both the spindle and the board (Kochanski, 1987). An alternative friction fire can be made using cotton wool and charcoal by crushing the charcoal into small pieces and rolling these pieces up in a piece of cotton wool (an eye pad is ideal). Placing the cotton wool roll on a hard surface, sandwiching it between another hard surface (split log works well) and rolling the the one against the other vigorously creates heat friction that leads to combustion.

5. Chemical: Potassium Permanganate and Glycerin

A less common but highly effective method involves chemical reactions to ignite a fire. Mixing potassium permanganate with glycerin sets off an exothermic chemical reaction that ignites within seconds. This technique is valuable in survival situations as it requires minimal physical effort and can be ignited under varied environmental conditions, although the materials need to be handled with care and stored properly (Schulz, 1998).

Understanding and mastering various fire-starting techniques remains a fundamental survival skill that connects us to our ancestors. The ability to produce fire has been a catalyst for human development, from social evolution to technological advancements. By continuing to explore and teach these methods, we honour our past and ensure that these critical survival skills are preserved for future generations.

 

References

– Gibson, E. (2011). *Solar Fire Starting: Techniques and Applications*. Adventure Publications.

– Kochanski, M. (1987). *Bushcraft: Outdoor Skills and Wilderness Survival*. Lone Pine Publishing.

– McLean, S. (2000). *Modern Fire Devices*. Survival Techniques Journal, 8(1), 45-50.

– Schulz, H. (1998). *Chemical Fire Starting Methods*. Experimental Survival Techniques, 3(2), 112-118.

– Thompson, R. (2004). *Ferrocerium Rods in Survival Situations*. Essential Survival Gear, 9(4), 200-205.

– Wrangham, R. (2009). *Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human*. Basic Books.

The Rule of Threes – How to prioritise in a survival situation

The Rule of Threes is a guideline often used in survival training to prioritize essential needs in a critical survival situation. It outlines the basic timeframes within which a person can survive without specific resources.

Decision: STOP (Stop, think, observe and plan). Make a decision within 3 seconds. Do a rapid initial assessment of what has happened, where you are and what you need to do.

Air: You can survive only about 3 minutes without air. This priority addresses situations involving airway blockage (First Aid), the inability to breathe (under water) or toxic environments, especially where smoke or gases are involved. Immediate action must be taken to remedy the situation. If you manage to survive the first three minutes then chances are you’ll make it to the first three hours.

Shelter: Exposure to harsh conditions without adequate shelter can be fatal. You can survive approximately 3 hours without shelter in extreme environments, where protection from extreme heat (heat stroke) or cold (hypothermia) is crucial. If you manage to survive the first three hours then chances are you’ll make it to the first three days.

Water: Dehydration is a serious concern in survival scenarios. You can survive about 3 days without water, depending on the climate and your physical condition. Procuring and securing a drinkable water source is essential. Treating the water to ensure it does not make you sick is also essential. If you manage to survive the first three days then chances are you’ll make it to the first three weeks.

Food: While important, food is lower on the list of immediate survival priorities. You can survive approximately 3 weeks without food. In a survival situation, your focus should be on the procurement of air, shelter, and water before food. Once you have secured air, shelter and water you can then start foraging for food. Prioritise high calorie food where possible. The goal is to conserve energy. When we expend energy looking for food we need to ensure that the calorific reward from the food we eat exceeds the energy used to secure it in order to prevent an energy deficit. Food high in fat contains more calories than plant leaves as an example. If you manage to survive the first three weeks then chances are you’ll make it to the first three months.

Human connection (for mental health): In prolonged survival situations, being completely isolated or lacking interaction with other people can lead to psychological distress and mental health issues. Human beings are inherently social creatures, and lack of social contact for periods of longer than 3 months can affect mental and emotional well-being significantly. If you manage to survive the first three months then chances are you’ll make it to the first three years.

Habitual environment (community rebuilding: Over extended periods, the need to establish a stable community or adapt to a new environmental reality becomes critical. This involves forming a sustainable living situation that includes stable food sources, secure shelter, and a functioning societal structure to support life over years. This is about moving from mere survival to rebuilding and thriving in a new status quo and is achievable within the first 3 years. If you’ve managed to survive the first three years chances are you’ll be able to continue supporting yourself to survive as long as it takes to be rescued.

These extended applications of the Rule of Threes highlight the importance of psychological and societal needs alongside the basic physiological requirements for survival in long-term scenarios.

Understanding and applying this hierarchy can help manage decisions and actions effectively when faced with a survival situation, ensuring that the most critical needs are met first to increase the chance of survival.

Survival Priorities – Core temperature control

Maintaining core body temperature is fundamental to survival in any environment. This delicate balance, often overlooked in the comfort of modern living, becomes critically evident in survival situations, where the difference between hypothermia and hyperthermia could mean life or death. We explore what core temperature control is, why it’s necessary for survival, and how you can protect and maintain it in adverse conditions.

Survival priorities with Josh Enyart, The Grey Bearded Green Beret

What is Core Temperature Control?

Core temperature control refers to the body’s ability to maintain its internal temperature within a narrow, safe range. The human body operates optimally at approximately 37°C (98.6°F), with slight variations. This internal temperature regulation is crucial for the proper functioning of vital organs and physiological processes.

 

Why is it Necessary?

Maintaining a stable core temperature is essential for several reasons:

  • Enzymatic activity: Most enzymes that facilitate biochemical reactions in the body work best at this temperature.
  • Cellular function: Extreme temperatures can damage cells, affecting tissue function and leading to potential organ failure.
  • Homeostasis: A stable internal environment allows the body to function efficiently, supporting everything from muscle action to brain activity.

 

How Can You Protect and Maintain It?

1. Layered Clothing

In cold environments, dressing in layers helps trap body heat. The air between layers acts as insulation, while the outer layers can be adjusted according to activity level and weather conditions to prevent sweat accumulation and subsequent chill.

2. Shelter 

Whether you’re combating the scorching sun or shielding yourself from icy blasts, shelter is paramount. It protects against the elements – wind, rain, snow, and sun – helping to maintain core temperature by creating a more controlled microenvironment.

3. Fire

Fire serves multiple survival purposes, from warmth and cooking to signalling for help. In cold conditions, it’s a vital heat source, while in hot environments, a small fire can be used for smoke signalling without significantly increasing ambient temperatures.

4. Hydration and Nutrition

Staying hydrated helps regulate body temperature by allowing for proper sweat production and cooling in heat, while in cold environments, it prevents dehydration, which can quickly lead to hypothermia. Nutritious food provides the energy necessary for metabolic heat production.

5. Understanding and Mitigation of Environmental Hazards

Recognising the signs of hypothermia and hyperthermia allows for early intervention. Hypothermia symptoms include shivering, slurred speech, and lethargy; hyperthermia symptoms might include dizziness, nausea, and confusion. Immediate action—such as adding/removing layers, seeking shelter, or adjusting activity levels—can be lifesaving.

6. Physical Conditioning

Being in good physical condition can enhance your body’s ability to regulate its temperature. Regular exercise improves circulation and metabolic rate, which can help in both heat and cold scenarios.

 

Core temperature control is a critical aspect of survival that underscores the importance of preparation and knowledge. Understanding how to maintain your body’s internal temperature within its safe operational range is vital, whether you’re planning an adventure in the wilderness or preparing for any unforeseen survival situation. Remember, the right knowledge, skills, and tools not only make survival possible but can also ensure a return to safety and normalcy.

The 5 Ws of Shelter Site Selection – Choosing the best site

When it comes to survival, the choice of where to build your shelter can be as critical as finding water or food. The right location enhances your shelter’s effectiveness, providing warmth, safety, and a base to await rescue or plan your next move. Inspired by the 5 Ws of survival with regard to shelter site selection – wildlife, water, weather, wood, and widow-makers – here’s how to choose the best site for your survival shelter.

Site Selection with the Grey Bearded Green Beret, Josh Enyart.

Wildlife: Be Away From

The first W emphasises the importance of setting up camp away from wildlife. While the wilderness is home to various animals, proximity to them can lead to dangerous encounters. Predators or even seemingly harmless animals can pose threats, either directly through aggression or indirectly by attracting other predators. Selecting a site away from animal trails, nests, or signs of feeding can reduce the risk of unwanted encounters.

 

Water: Be Near To

Water is life, especially in a survival situation. When choosing a shelter site, ensure you’re close enough to a water source like a stream or lake. However, too close, and you risk flooding or attracting animals. A general rule is to stay within a reasonable distance—close enough for easy access but far enough to avoid the cons of being too near.

 

Weather: Wind, Be Away From

Weather, particularly wind, plays a significant role in shelter site selection. Building a shelter in a spot shielded from the wind can prevent it from being blown away and reduce the chill factor, helping you retain warmth. Look for natural windbreakers like rock formations, hills, or dense tree lines. However, ensure the spot is not a wind tunnel, where two natural formations could channel the wind directly towards you.

 

Wood: Be Near To

Wood is an essential resource for building the shelter itself and for firewood. Being near a supply of deadwood allows you to build and maintain a fire for warmth, cooking, and signalling without expending too much energy on gathering fuel. However, ensure you’re not depleting the area of resources or damaging the environment unnecessarily.

 

Widow-Makers: Be Away From Deadfall Trees

Lastly, the term ‘widow-makers’ refers to deadfall trees or hanging branches that can fall without warning. Avoid building your shelter underneath or near these hazards, as they can cause serious injury or death. Inspect the site for signs of dead trees, leaning trunks, or loose branches overhead, and choose a safer spot to set up camp.

 

Selecting a site for your shelter is a decision that should not be taken lightly. By considering the 5 Ws – staying away from wildlife, weather and widow-makers, being near water and wood – you can significantly increase your shelter’s effectiveness and your chances of survival. This applies to all site selection, whether it be for a tent or a survival shelter. Remember, the goal is not just to endure but to thrive in the wilderness until you can return to safety.

 

This guide is a general overview, and the specifics may vary based on your environment, situation, and survival skills. Always prioritise your safety and the preservation of the environment in your decisions.

The 5 Ws of Survival: Understanding the Basics of Survival Skills

Survival situations can arise unexpectedly to anyone, anywhere, whether you are on a hiking trip, caught in a natural disaster, or find yourself in any other type of emergency scenario. Knowing the basics of survival can make a significant difference in these critical moments. The 5 Ws of Survival—Who, What, When, Where, and Why—offer a structured way to think about survival skills and preparedness. Let’s dive into each of these Ws to understand their importance.

 

Who: Know Your Company

In any survival situation, the ‘Who’ can significantly impact your strategy. Are you alone, or do you have family, friends, or even pets with you? The skills, physical condition, and emotional state of each person (or animal) with you can affect your priorities and decisions. For instance, protecting and caring for children or elderly companions may necessitate different shelter or food and water considerations than if you were alone.

 

What: Identify the Essentials

The ‘What’ in survival refers to identifying the essential elements you need to focus on to survive: shelter, water, food, and signal for help. Each of these elements is crucial, and the priority can vary depending on your specific situation. For example, in extreme weather conditions, finding or creating shelter may be your first priority, while in other scenarios, securing a water source might take precedence.

 

When: Timing Is Key 

Understanding ‘When’ to take certain actions is crucial for survival. This includes knowing when to stay put and wait for rescue versus when to move and seek help. The decision can depend on various factors, such as your location, the weather, your preparedness, and whether rescuers are likely to be looking for you. Additionally, timing your movements to conserve energy and avoid exposure to harsh conditions can be life-saving.

 

Where: Know Your Environment

The ‘Where’ involves understanding your environment and its resources. Are you in a dense forest, a desert, near a water body, or in an urban setting affected by a disaster? Each environment offers different resources and challenges. Familiarising yourself with basic navigation skills, learning to recognise local edible plants, and knowing how to find water are all valuable skills that depend on your specific location.

 

Why: The Purpose Behind Survival Efforts

Lastly, the ‘Why’ focuses on the purpose behind your survival efforts. This often involves a strong will to survive and the motivation to return to loved ones or simply to persevere through a challenge. The mental aspect of survival is just as important as the physical one. Maintaining a positive mindset, managing panic and fear, and setting small achievable goals can significantly impact your ability to survive.

 

The 5 Ws of Survival offer a framework to think about preparedness and action in potential survival situations. Understanding these aspects can help anyone develop a more robust survival plan, enhancing their ability to navigate and emerge safely from emergencies. Remember, the best time to learn and prepare for survival situations is before they occur. Taking the time to acquire survival skills, assemble emergency kits, and plan for various scenarios can make all the difference when the unexpected happens.

10 Poisonous Plants in the UK you should know

10 Poisonous Plants in the UK you should know

Learning to find food in the wild is thrilling, foraging for edible plants that can sustain and revitalise us if needed, but it does not come without risks.

As much as we love to help our kids go wild we also need to prepare them (and ourselves) for the dangers it contains, equipping them with the knowledge to play safe.

The picturesque landscapes of the United Kingdom are inviting, but there are hidden dangers lurking amidst the beauty. As we encourage our children to explore the natural world, it is essential to be aware of the potential hazards they may encounter, particularly when it comes to poisonous plants. Here are ten poisonous plants found in the UK that parents, carers and children should know about.

1. Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata)

This plant is the most poisonous in the UK, and even a small amount can be lethal. Hemlock water dropwort is often found near water sources, and its toxic compounds can cause seizures and respiratory failure. Exercise extreme caution and educate children to stay away from it.

Hemlock Water Dropwort is a perennial plant found near water sources. It has hollow, ridged stems and deeply divided, glossy green leaves. The plant produces clusters of tiny white flowers arranged in umbels.

Photo credits: Hemlock flowers By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Leaves close up By Alex Lockton – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Flower clusters By Alex Lockton – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

2. Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum)

One of the most poisonous plants found in the UK, hemlock can be fatally toxic even in small doses. Its resemblance to other non-toxic plants makes it particularly dangerous, so it is crucial to educate both children and adults about its distinctive features. All parts of the plant are toxic, especially the seeds and roots, especially if ingested. The famous philosopher Socrates died in agony from hemlock poisening, insisting a scribe record his death.

Hemlock is a tall, erect biennial or perennial plant with hollow, smooth, and purple-spotted stems. It features lacy, fern-like leaves that are divided into numerous small leaflets. The plant produces clusters of tiny white flowers that form umbrella-shaped clusters. It is similar to, and easy to confuse with, Cow’s Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris)

Photo credits: Shrub Public Domain, Flower close-up By Djtanng – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, , Seeds By Totnesmartin – Own work, Public Domain, Illustration By Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler & Medizinal-Pflanzen (text on p. 154, illustrations in back) – List of Koehler Images, Public Domain

3. Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna)

This highly toxic plant, with its attractive berries, poses a severe risk to curious children. Ingesting even a few of these berries can lead to hallucinations, seizures, and, in extreme cases, fatalities. The foliage and berries are extremely toxic, the berries pose the greatest danger to children because they look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste.

Deadly Nightshade is a perennial plant with purple or greenish-brown stems and dark green, oval-shaped leaves. It produces small, bell-shaped flowers that are usually purple or green in color, followed by glossy, round berries that ripen to a dark purple shade.

Photo credits: Shrub By Rüdiger Kratz, CC BY-SA 3.0, Flower By Danny S. – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Green Berries By Agnieszka Kwiecień, Nova – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Dark berry By Flobbadob – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

 

4. Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

Known for its vibrant colors, foxgloves contain compounds that can disrupt heart rhythms and cause symptoms ranging from nausea to heart failure. Keep a watchful eye on children to prevent accidental ingestion.

Foxglove is a biennial plant with tall stalks covered in soft, hairy leaves that form a rosette in the first year. In the second year, it produces tall spikes adorned with tubular flowers in various shades of pink, purple, or white.

Photo credits: Foxglove leaves by Derek Ramsey (Ram-Man) – Self-photographed, CC BY-SA 2.5, Flowers By Mateus S. Figueiredo – CC BY-SA 3.0, Whole plant By I, Jörg Hempel, CC BY-SA 3.0 de

5. Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)

Also known as aconite, wolfsbane, leopard’s bane, devil’s helmet or blue rocket, monkshood contains a potent toxin that affects the heart and nervous system. Ingestion or even skin contact with this plant can cause paralysis and, in severe cases, lead to respiratory failure.

Monkshood is a perennial plant with tall stems and deeply divided, dark green leaves. Its distinctive hood-shaped flowers range in color from blue and purple to white and are arranged along the length of the stem.

Photo credits: Whole plant By Bernd Haynold – Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5, Seeds By Hardyplants at English Wikipedia – Own work, Public Domain

6. Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)

Though not directly poisonous, giant hogweed poses a significant threat due to its toxic sap. Contact with the sap, followed by exposure to sunlight, can cause severe burns and even permanent scarring.

Giant Hogweed is a large perennial plant with thick, bristly stems that can grow up to 5 meters tall. It has deeply lobed, dark green leaves that can span over a meter in width. The plant produces large, umbrella-shaped clusters of white flowers.

Photo credits: Flowers By own work by Appaloosa (Hauptdolde mit Nebendolden Quelle: selbst fotografiert GFDL), CC BY-SA 3.0, Stem By I, Liné1, CC BY-SA 3.0, Whole plant By Fritz Geller-Grimm – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

7. Yew tree (Taxus baccata)

While the yew tree is commonly found in the UK, its dark green foliage and bright red berries should raise caution. The seeds within the berries contain toxic compounds, and even the tree’s needles and bark are poisonous if ingested.

Yew is an evergreen tree or shrub with reddish-brown bark. Its flat, dark green needles are arranged spirally on the branches. The plant produces small, inconspicuous flowers followed by bright red berries, which are actually modified cones with a fleshy, poisonous covering.

Photo credits:

All photos © Deryck van Steenderen

8. Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis)

Although charming in appearance, lily of the valley contains glycosides that can cause heart rhythm disturbances and gastrointestinal problems. Keep this delicate yet dangerous plant out of reach of children.

Lily of the Valley is a low-growing perennial plant with lance-shaped, glossy dark green leaves. It sends up slender stalks bearing small, bell-shaped white flowers that emit a sweet fragrance.

Flowers By Ivar Leidus – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Illustration By Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen – List of Koehler Images, Public Domain, Berries By H. Zell – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Whole plants By Matti Virtala – Own work, CC0

9. Ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris)

Often found in meadows and pastures, ragwort can be toxic to both humans and animals if ingested. Educate children about the plant’s distinctive yellow flowers and urge them to avoid picking or consuming it.

Ragwort is a biennial or perennial plant with deeply lobed, fern-like leaves covered in fine hairs. It displays clusters of bright yellow daisy-like flowers with prominent dark centers.

Photo credits: Whole plant By Christian Fischer, CC BY-SA 3.0, , Flowers By Trish Steel, CC BY-SA 2.0, Illustration By Carl Axel Magnus Lindman – Bilder ur Nordens Flora no. 20, Public Domain

10. Daffodils (Narcissus spp.)

Surprisingly, these beautiful spring flowers contain toxic alkaloids in their bulbs. Ingestion can cause symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and even convulsions. Teach children to admire daffodils from a distance and avoid putting them in their mouths.

Daffodils are perennial plants with long, slender green leaves that emerge from bulbs in early spring. Each stem produces a single flower adorned with a trumpet-shaped corona and six petals, usually in vibrant shades of yellow or white.

Photo credits: Illustration By Otto Wilhelm Thomé – www.biolib.de; Relevant page from mirror site: [1]Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé; Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz – in Wort und Bild für Schule und Haus, Public Domain, Flowers By Genet, CC BY-SA 3.0, Single Flower By AnRo0002 – Own work, CC0

As parents, we have a duty to protect our children from potential dangers, and being aware of the poisonous plants that thrive in the UK and Europe is an essential part of this responsibility. By educating ourselves and our children about these toxic plants and their distinguishing features, we can reduce the risk of accidental ingestion or contact. Encourage your children to learn them, and to play aware.